One of the most poignant points of Morris’s exploration of the FSA photographers is that Photoshop is not needed to alter photographs, changing captions is useful as well. Though the story is apocryphal, William Randolph Hearst once shouted “You furnish the pictures. I’ll furnish the war!” Whether he said it or not is not as important as the notion that people understood that this type of manipulation was possible.
In the Israeli-Lebanon War in 2006, Reuters published a photograph of Beirut after an Israeli airstrike on the city that had been altered digitally. The photographer, Adnan Hajj, mind-mindbogglingly decided to add more smoke in a photograph that already spoke volumes about the devastation of the city. I can’t even imagine what the photographer was as thinking, because the original was a very good photograph and he did such a poor job in his alteration. Reuters retracted several hundred of his photos. (I am not posting side by side photos because they are copyrighted)
Another example (I’ll post it if I can find it again) was a military history magazine publishing the infamous photograph of the cannonballs on the road at the Battle of Balaclava in the Crimean War. It is very likely that Roger Fenton took the first photograph and then rolled cannonballs into the road for a more effective picture.
During the Spanish Civil War, Robert Capa took a photograph of a Republican soldier allegedly being shot, which became the most iconic image of the war. Scrutiny of the photograph shows that the event could not have happened where Capa claimed. Investigators continued to pull at the string until it unraveled, and now it is regarded as staged. (I have provided a link to the photograph because it is copyrighted)
Fenton was one of the first combat photographers, inventing the genre and paving the way for photographers like Matthew Brady. Since he was one of the first, he may not have seen what he was doing as any different than when artists took license to paint a battle. As the linked Time article shows, Capa was a young photographer on his first assignment-just like Arthur Rothstein.
In a way, I understand why photojournalists alter photographs. In 2003, I was in the Marines and was in the Invasion of Iraq. I took a lot of photographs when I could on disposable cameras. Due to sand and sandstorms, the the cameras usually only worked for about 10 or 15 shots before they became clogged with sand. Everything is grainy and pixelated. Explosions which were pretty close and dynamic look small and detached in the photographs. Few of us had good digital cameras, and those that did had a host of problems keeping them working. I therefore see why some people are tempted to change photographs to convey the deeper sense of being there, but I will go on record saying that I do not condone alteration. I have been using some of my photos for the Photoshop tutorials to see if I can get any more information out of them though.
I know my post has been largely military related, and I do apologize for that, and I am even more sorry for my own anecdotal vignettes. But I wanted to bring up the larger point that photojournalists take photos for a living and have to produce good, dynamic images to maintain their livelihood. While I was disappointed that my photographs ended up being horrible, other people have the added pressures of having to produce. I do not see a problem with my photo restoration. However, Fenton, Rothstein, Capa and Hajj, all crossed the a line that, in my opinion, destroyed the veracity of their works.
I really liked James Curtis’s take on the Evan Walker photos. Sometimes, I think he was a little quick to write off things as moved because they didn’t fit in that space. Take the case of the rocking chair. Growing up and visiting my great grandmother in the Appalachian Mountains in Blairsville, GA, I would notice that sometimes her furniture was in weird places. She lived in a cramped house and would put furniture (including rockers) on the wall so that she could move around and pull out the furniture that she wanted to use. Scrutiny and examination is good, but I don’t think you can make such sweeping claims as Curtis tended to do.
As historians, we all know that every single solitary thing that we write down or utter to a journalist will be scrutinized. At my job, I feel that everybody is trying to “stump the chump” finding some arcane way that we are wrong. Sometimes people are being pedantic, sometimes they are absolutely correct, but the criticism is always there. In the days of inter-connectivity, scrutiny is (as well it should be) everywhere.
Well, after looking at my website on a couple of devices, I found that the colors on one of my devices showed up as a green color, and on the other showed lavender. It’s pretty frustrating to know that what I’ve designed probably won’t show up the same everywhere else. W3C will help as I will now pick colors that are supported by all browsers though I know variation will exist. Oh well.
Looking through the sites this week, I think http://www.w3schools.com will be a site that I will save and refer to in the future. The site talks about standard colors for the US Government, which I think they leave a little bit of information out, and I will add to it here.
The US government standardized its paints in the late 1940s. The system they developed is still in use. Military (or other government entities) mandate what color a piece of equipment should be and outline it in a manual. The site does mention that the 1,2 or 3 at the beginning of the FS code denotes gloss, semi-gloss, or flat. Military applications are almost exclusively flat, because it is harder to see, but gloss is much easier to clean and is popular with military vehicle collectors. Marine Corps Green is FS 34052 a flat green color. FS 14052 is identical in color, but is gloss. FS 14052, 24052 and 34052 should all have an identical hex code, which they do not according to the site. If anyone wants to see a color fan, I own one, but they are expensive and no longer in production.
Here is another way that colors can be tricky, though with a little less application to the class. The standard yellow color for Marine Corps vehicles in WWII had a pigmentation of almost pure yellow lead. Because lead is no longer used in paints, it is virtually impossible to replicate that yellow in real life!
On another note, my windows firewall is prohibiting me from updating my portfolio website, which is obviously irritating. I spent a looooong time on Saturday and too much time today trying to figure out how to fix it. Windows 10 is ruining my life. If anybody knows how I can fix it, I would be so grateful for the help!
I commented on Ann-Marie’s blog.
I’ve been struggling a little when it comes to this class. I am certainly not used to this type of work, but I am having fun. Many of the components of the Lynda Videos are easy to do when watching and following along, but when I try to set off on my on, I go “high and to the right.”
I would like to give a sincere thanks to all of my classmates who have been posting helpful links and resources for use in building pages. They have been tremendously helpful to me, and I suspect others as well. So keep that up!
I had some experience using SQL, language building reports in for enterprise logistics management in the past. It was very cerebral and not a ton of fun. I got pretty good at it too, but I have a problem with bloating my code too much, which makes things slow at best or hard to work with at worst. For example, I used two different spanners for the same footnote so that I could make the book I cited be italic, and wrapped another wrapper around the entire bibliography to standardize the size, color and font. I know that there has to be a better way, but at 2 AM and a full workday in a few hours and class afterwards, I’m not going to keep banging my head against the wall to figure that one out! (If I seem tired tomorrow, you’ll know why.)
But the main takeaway that I have from my former days with SQL and I guess it still applies is that the less language that you can put into any program, the better. I have to practice at that. I am also very guilty of using keys to turn off lines of text to test new things and never cleaning the obsolete lines of text.
Thus type of coding is more fun than the data manipulation that I used in the past, because of putting in parameter and getting data back, I can write code for my website and make it responsive. Slowly I think I am improving though.
I would like to give a sincere thanks to all of my classmates who have been posting helpful links and resources for use in building pages. They have been tremendously helpful to me, and I suspect others as well.
I will end on this final note: I think I have learned more about the internet in the last couple of weeks than I knew before.
Edit: Here is a link to my Type site. It is pretty ugly, and I would like to refine the colors and layout drastically. I just wanted to get the components in for practice and experiment.
I am trying to figure out what I am doing in the digital age. I have never really had to do this type of work before. I have only had to blog for one other class and I find this format interesting, but still challenging. I must admit, that I was confused about the nature of the blog and that it tied into the final project, so that I am late to the game in the weekly posting. So these are my first blogposts. A day (or a few weeks) late, but hopefully, not a dollar short.
Jumping right in, structure is a pretty hard thing for me to grasp. Most of my school work and professional work to this point has been pretty structured and within the confines of a laid out theme. For school assignments, most everything has been given parameters from the length, size and font of the writings, to the way in which the headers and footers are marked. For my work assignments, there is a structure to our museum that everything that I write has to follow and I have a usually 500 word caps for the largest artifacts, down to 75 characters for the smallest. The museum pays graphic designers to fit the words and photographs that I write and select into the thematic layout of the museum. Sometimes they come back and tell me that I have to tell the same 500 word story in 350 words and an 5×7 photograph, which can be challenging.
The image that I affixed to the blog is an example of what I mean by fitting the copy and photo fitting into the structure. The image is a proposed layout to the museum’s 9/11 exhibit. Curators and historians wrote the text and chose photographs, but graphic designers set the structure for us to follow.
This project is allowing me to practice putting a structure together, which I have never really considered before. Considering all that goes into making a successful page, I am more aware of what websites do well, and not well. As we saw in some of the Typography classes this week, websites work for a variety of reasons, which I will need to study more.
This week I commented on Kimberly’s blog.